ITK  5.4.0 Insight Toolkit
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// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// This example illustrates how to read a DICOM series into a volume and then
// save this volume into another DICOM series using the exact same header
// information. It makes use of the GDCM library.
//
// The main purpose of this example is to show how to properly propagate the
// DICOM specific information along the pipeline to be able to correctly
// write back the image using the information from the input DICOM files.
//
// Please note that writing DICOM files is quite a delicate operation since
// we are dealing with a significant amount of patient specific data. It is
// your responsibility to verify that the DICOM headers generated from this
// code are not introducing risks in the diagnosis or treatment of patients.
// It is as well your responsibility to make sure that the privacy of the
// patient is respected when you process data sets that contain personal
// information. Privacy issues are regulated in the United States by the
// HIPAA norms\footnote{The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
// Act of 1996. \url{https://www.cms.hhs.gov/hipaa/}}. You would probably
// find similar legislation in every country.
//
// \index{HIPAA!Privacy}
// \index{HIPAA!Dicom}
// \index{Dicom!HIPPA}
//
// When saving datasets in DICOM format it must be made clear whether these
// datasets have been processed in any way, and if so, you should inform the
// recipients of the data about the purpose and potential consequences of the
// processing. This is fundamental if the datasets are intended to be used
// for diagnosis, treatment or follow-up of patients. For example, the simple
// reduction of a dataset from a 16-bits/pixel to a 8-bits/pixel
// representation may make it impossible to detect certain pathologies and
// as a result will expose the patient to the risk of remaining untreated for
// a long period of time while her/his pathology progresses.
//
// You are strongly encouraged to get familiar with the report on medical
// errors To Err is Human'', produced by the U.S. Institute of
// Medicine~\cite{ToErrIsHuman2001}. Raising awareness about the high
// frequency of medical errors is a first step in reducing their occurrence.
//
// \index{Medical Errors}
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// After all these warnings, let us now go back to the code and get familiar
// with the use of ITK and GDCM for writing DICOM Series. The first step that
// we must take is to include the header files of the relevant classes. We
// include the GDCMImageIO class, the GDCM filenames generator, as well as
// the series reader and writer.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
#include "itkGDCMImageIO.h"
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
#include <vector>
#include "itksys/SystemTools.hxx"
int
main(int argc, char * argv[])
{
if (argc < 3)
{
std::cerr << "Usage: " << argv[0]
<< " DicomDirectory OutputDicomDirectory" << std::endl;
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// As a second step, we define the image type to be used in this example.
// This is done by explicitly selecting a pixel type and a dimension. Using
// the image type we can define the type of the series reader.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
using PixelType = short;
constexpr unsigned int Dimension = 3;
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// We also declare types for the \doxygen{GDCMImageIO} object that will
// actually read and write the DICOM images, and the
// \doxygen{GDCMSeriesFileNames} object that will generate and order all
// the filenames for the slices composing the volume dataset. Once we have
// the types, we proceed to create instances of both objects.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
using ImageIOType = itk::GDCMImageIO;
using NamesGeneratorType = itk::GDCMSeriesFileNames;
auto gdcmIO = ImageIOType::New();
auto namesGenerator = NamesGeneratorType::New();
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// Just as the previous example, we get the DICOM filenames from the
// directory. Note however, that in this case we use the
// \code{SetInputDirectory()} method instead of the \code{SetDirectory()}.
// This is done because in the present case we will use the filenames
// generator for producing both the filenames for reading and the filenames
// for writing. Then, we invoke the \code{GetInputFileNames()} method in
// order to get the list of filenames to read.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
namesGenerator->SetInputDirectory(argv[1]);
namesGenerator->GetInputFileNames();
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
size_t numberOfFileNames = filenames.size();
std::cout << numberOfFileNames << std::endl;
for (unsigned int fni = 0; fni < numberOfFileNames; ++fni)
{
std::cout << "filename # " << fni << " = ";
std::cout << filenames[fni] << std::endl;
}
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// We construct one instance of the series reader object. Set the DICOM
// image IO object to be used with it, and set the list of filenames to
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// We can trigger the reading process by calling the \code{Update()} method
// on the series reader. It is wise to put this invocation inside a
// \code{try/catch} block since the process may eventually throw exceptions.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
try
{
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
}
catch (const itk::ExceptionObject & excp)
{
std::cerr << "Exception thrown while writing the image" << std::endl;
std::cerr << excp << std::endl;
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// At this point we have the volumetric data loaded in memory and we can
// access it by invoking the \code{GetOutput()} method in the reader.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// Now we can prepare the process for writing the dataset. First, we take
// the name of the output directory from the command line arguments.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
const char * outputDirectory = argv[2];
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// Second, we make sure the output directory exists, using the
// cross-platform tools: itksys::SystemTools. In this case we choose to
// create the directory if it does not exist yet.
//
// \index{itksys!SystemTools}
// \index{itksys!MakeDirectory}
// \index{SystemTools}
// \index{SystemTools!MakeDirectory}
// \index{MakeDirectory!SystemTools}
// \index{MakeDirectory!itksys}
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
itksys::SystemTools::MakeDirectory(outputDirectory);
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// We explicitly instantiate the image type to be used for writing, and use
// the image type for instantiating the type of the series writer.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
using OutputPixelType = short;
constexpr unsigned int OutputDimension = 2;
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// We construct a series writer and connect to its input the output from
// the reader. Then we pass the GDCM image IO object in order to be able to
// write the images in DICOM format.
//
// the writer filter. Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
auto seriesWriter = SeriesWriterType::New();
seriesWriter->SetImageIO(gdcmIO);
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// It is time now to setup the GDCMSeriesFileNames to generate new
// filenames using another output directory. Then simply pass those newly
// generated files to the series writer.
//
// \index{GDCMSeriesFileNames!SetOutputDirectory()}
// \index{GDCMSeriesFileNames!GetOutputFileNames()}
// \index{ImageSeriesWriter!SetFileNames()}
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
namesGenerator->SetOutputDirectory(outputDirectory);
seriesWriter->SetFileNames(namesGenerator->GetOutputFileNames());
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// The following line of code is extremely important for this process to
// input reader and passing it to the output writer. This step is important
//
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// Finally we trigger the writing process by invoking the \code{Update()}
// method in the series writer. We place this call inside a \code{try/catch}
// block, in case any exception is thrown during the writing process.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
// Software Guide : BeginCodeSnippet
try
{
seriesWriter->Update();
}
catch (const itk::ExceptionObject & excp)
{
std::cerr << "Exception thrown while writing the series " << std::endl;
std::cerr << excp << std::endl;
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}
// Software Guide : EndCodeSnippet
// Software Guide : BeginLatex
//
// Please keep in mind that you should avoid generating DICOM files which
// have the appearance of being produced by a scanner. It should be clear
// from the directory or filenames that these data were the result of the
// execution of some sort of algorithm. This will prevent your dataset
// from being used as scanner data by accident.
//
// Software Guide : EndLatex
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
itkImageSeriesWriter.h
itk::ImageSeriesWriter
Writes image data to a series of data files.
Definition: itkImageSeriesWriter.h:85
Data source that reads image data from a series of disk files.
itkGDCMImageIO.h
itk::GDCMImageIO
ImageIO class for reading and writing DICOM V3.0 and ACR/NEMA 1&2 uncompressed images....
Definition: itkGDCMImageIO.h:109
itk::GDCMSeriesFileNames
Generate a sequence of filenames from a DICOM series.
Definition: itkGDCMSeriesFileNames.h:63
itkGDCMSeriesFileNames.h
itk::Image
Templated n-dimensional image class.
Definition: itkImage.h:88
New
static Pointer New()
itk::GTest::TypedefsAndConstructors::Dimension2::Dimension
constexpr unsigned int Dimension
Definition: itkGTestTypedefsAndConstructors.h:44